The Virology Centre of Excellence Rotterdam (VICER) aims to consolidate and expand its position as the international centre of excellence for multidisciplinary, basic, translational and clinical research of viruses and virus infections at the molecular, patient and population level. The unique aspect of VICER are
- its translational approach, with expertise ranging from basic virology to clinical virology, and
- its trans-domain approach, connecting medical and veterinary health, public health and ecology.
The health of humans is shaped by multiple factors, among which the combination of exposures to healthy and disease-causing microbes, the behavior of viruses in the complex ecosystem constituted by built environments such as hospitals and modern farming systems, and the response of the host innate and adaptive immune system to these (combined) exposures.
By combining the complementary areas of expertise, VICER is able to meet today’s and tomorrow’s societal challenges in diseases caused by common and newly emerging viruses. The long-term goal of VICER is to limit the clinical and public health impact of virus infections through an integrated (field-to-)bench-to-bedside research program. This program focuses on interactions between viruses and their hosts from the molecular, host and population perspectives, and on translating this knowledge to improve prevention and intervention strategies, both at the patient and population level.
VICER's research program has two main research pillars that are a natural consequence of major drivers that affect the global dynamics of virus infections. The first is the PERSONALISED HEALTH PILLAR. Due to major demographic changes, the group of high-risk patients (elderly, immuno-compromised, patients with complex co-morbidities, young children) is increasing, resulting in an increased burden of disease due to acute and chronic infections with a wide range of viruses. The first goal of this pillar is to improve detection, prevention and intervention strategies against such virus infections at the patient level. The second goal is to understand the effects of this demographic change on opportunities for virus evolution and fitness gains by selection of viruses that escape the complex treatments in this patient population.
The second is the ONE HEALTH PILLAR. As a result of world-wide changes in climate, land use, and animal management, there is an increased risk of zoonotic viruses crossing the species barrier, adapting to the human host, and gaining human-to-human transmissibility, resulting in novel epidemics or pandemics. The main goal of this research pillar is to provide the basic, translational and clinical research needed to develop evidence-based detection, prevention and intervention strategies against zoonotic viruses with potential to cause epidemics and pandemics. We focus on the main RNA virus families through an integrated program in which emerging viral infections are studied in comparison with endemic viruses of the same families through a comparative viro-immuno-pathogenesis program.
VICER PERSONALISED HEALTH: In depth knowledge of the pathogenesis and antiviral host defense mechanisms are needed to guide treatment and (vaccine) prevention choices, and these are pursued through state-of-the-art techniques in biochemistry and molecular biology. Clinicians and laboratory scientists closely collaborate in advancing the research questions. The efficacy of novel and existing antiviral treatments and the emergence of drug-resistant virus variants are studied in depth in order to improve antiviral treatment regimens. A recently initiated research line aims to study to potential benefits of viral infections and their use in oncolytic-viroimmunotherapy. Novel findings are translated to our high quality molecular diagnostics unit, which in turn forms an important bridge between clinic and research.
Research lines within this theme are:
- Oncolytic viro-immuno-therapy: prof dr. Van Eijck (Heelkunde), prof.dr. Fouchier (Viroscience), dr. Van den Hoogen (Viroscience), in the Medical Delta consortium OVIT (Oncolytic Viro-ImmunoTherapy consortium).
- Cure and elimination of chronic viral infections of global impact: prof dr. Boucher (Viroscience), dr. Gruters (Viroscience), dr. Van Kampen (Viroscience), dr. Mahmoudi (Biochemie), dr. Van der Ende (INW), prof dr. Verbon (INW, collaboration with ACE HIV)
- Pathogenesis and treatment of viral infections in immunocompromised and severely ill children: dr. Fraaij (Viroscience), prof.dr. Van Rossum (Kindergeneeskunde)
- Pathogenesis and clinical impact of neurotropic virus infections including herpesviruses: dr. Verjans (Viroscience), dr. Hintzen (Neurologie, in collaboration with ACE MS)
- Pathogenesis and clinical impact of paramyxoviruses: dr. de Swart (Viroscience), dr. Van den Hoogen (Viroscience)
- Diagnostic triaging of patients with fever at the emergency department: prof dr. Van Gorp (Viroscience), Patka (SEH), prof dr. Gommers (ICV), dr. Van den Akker (ICV), S. Klein-Nagelvoort (SEH), in collaboration with ACE Emergency Care
VICER GLOBAL ONE HEALTH: While embedded within a Medical Centre, it has been a conscious decision to focus part of the research on virus infections at the human animal interface, as many of the novel health threats of the past two decades have emerged from wildlife or domestic animals. This research focuses on
- prediction and early detection of emerging viral infections through in depth laboratory and bioinformatics analysis. Basic pathogen behavior in its natural host, as well as comparative pathogenesis, viral evolution, and early defense mechanisms of the human host are studied to understand and eventually predict pathogen and disease emergence.
- comparative pathogenesis: by contrasting properties of emerging pathogens with those of closely related pathogens in more or less related host species, the various host genomic interaction pathways are unraveled to understand molecular and immunological drivers of cross species transmission and disease development. Translational research focuses on diagnostics, vaccines, antiviral compounds and other intervention strategies. This work provides crucial expertise on viruses for the ACE Migrant health and Neglected tropical diseases that has complementary expertise in parasitic and bacterial diseases.
Research lines within this theme are:
- Viral evolution and pandemic threats: prof dr. Fouchier (Viroscience)
- Drivers of emergence at the animal-human interface: prof.dr. Kuiken (Viroscience), prof dr. Fouchier (Viroscience), dr. Reusken (Viroscience), prof dr. Koopmans (Viroscience)
- Viral metagenomics: prof.dr. Koopmans (Viroscience), dr. Cotten (Viroscience)
- Modeling of viral transmission chains: prof dr. Boucher (Viroscience), dr. Van de Vijver (Viroscience), prof.dr. Koopmans, dr. Vlas (iMGZ)
- Modeling of public health impact of interventions: dr. de Vlas (iMGZ), dr. Van de Vijver (Viroscience)
- Communication of interventions to target groups: prof dr. Richardus (iMGZ), dr. Voeten (iMGZ)
- Arbovirus pathogenesis and epidemiology: dr. Rockx (Viroscience), dr. Martina (Viroscience), prof.dr. Koopmans (Viroscience), dr. Reusken (Viroscience)
- Emerging coronaviruses: dr. B. Haagmans (Viroscience)
Partners in VICER contribute to the standard curriculum for medical students, clincial technology and nanobiology students. VICER and its partners are linked to the Postgraduate School Molecular Medicine MOLMED, in particular the research master program Infection and Immunity, accredited by NVAO in 2014, which has an intake of on average 18 students a year. With more than 500 graduates, MOLMED is the largest Erasmus MC graduate school.
The school and master both have been ranked as top programs by students and they attract the best national and international students (69% coming from The Netherlands and other European countries, 17% from emerging economies like China, India, Indonesia, Iran and South Africa (17%), and 14% from developing countries like Bangladesh, Zambia, and Vietnam). The master in Infection & Immunity has been rated the best Master's program in the Netherlands in the field of Biomedical Science at universities by the Dutch Keuzegids Masters (guide to Master's programs).
Researchers of VICER also are strongly involved in "THE Virology" course that attracts clinicians and scientists from all of The Netherlands(70 participants). VICER's translational research directly feeds into the yearly post academic refresher courses on infectious diseases to medical specialists. In addition, and jointly with the external partners in the National One Health Platform (UMCU, Veterinary Faculty, Wageningen University) VICER will co-develop a One Health curriculum for veterinary and medical students (http://www.ncoh.nl/en/ncoh.htm).
Furthermore VICER contributes to several community programs:
- Junior science classes (elementary & high schools; profielwerkstukken)
- Public lectures (paradisolezing, Lof der Geneeskunst, Science Café, Studium Generale)
Societal Relevance to Research, Education and Patient Care
VICER focuses on viruses that are associated with the highest (potential) burden of disease in the general population at large and in specific risk groups, acknowledging that this is not a fixed situation. Knowledge of the (immuno-) pathogenesis and evolution of these viruses, both in humans and in animals, and understanding how this basic knowledge translates into understanding the transmissibility, virulence, and resistance traits is the fundamental basis of the work, leading to novel preventive and treatment strategies, such as implementation of new vaccines, and other mechanisms to control the spread of infection. VICER members were internationally and nationally recognized for their contribution to coordinating the operation of three innovative mobile Ebola labs providing essential fast and reliable laboratory diagnostics. The Viroscience department is WHO, EU and national reference centre for emerging infectious diseases, WHO collaborating centre for arboviruses, viral hemorrhagic fevers, measles, and the national influenza centre in the WHO influenza network. The international "VIRUSKENNER" project, supported by EU Erasmus+ and embedded within VICER, stimulates prevention against viral infectious diseases among high school students with the aim to attract them to a science career through a competition and yearly education program. The VICER PI Marion Koopmans received the highest award in Dutch science for societal impact: the Stevin Prize.
Viability of Research, Education and Patient Care
Through establishing VICER, the existing (ad-hoc) collaborations with various clinical research groups have been formalized to promote adequate and efficient translation of research through a 'bench-to-bedside' approach. In addition, there are natural and close collaborations with the proposed ACEs: Migratory and Global Health, Lung Infections and Immunity, Emergency Care, Multiple Sclerose and Tumor Immunology and Immune Therapy. The research combines clinicians, clinical researchers, laboratory scientists, and public health researchers. VICER is strongly committed to training the next generation of leading scientists and clinicians in virology, both nationally and internationally, including scientists from developing countries. The new BSL3 facility was recognized as National NWO Roadmap Facility.
At least 27% of the PhD graduates starts an international scientific career, and 10% finds a job at governmental or industrial partners in a related field. Our ambition is to stay a global science player, with a strong societal impact through delivering and implementing laboratory support to outbreak investigations and advisory roles for national governments and international organizations as WHO, ECDC, EFSA, FAO/OIE.
Between 2007 and 2014 the PI's in VICER produced 1560 publications. The PIs have a wide national and global network through EU, WHO and NIH funded projects, with long-term commitments in joint research and advisory roles in China, Vietnam, Indonesia, US, UK. As scientists active in VICER ONE HEALTH are also leaders in a number of EU wide and global networks, the potential footprint of this work is broad ranging.
Key and relevant publications of the last five years
- Virus genomes reveal factors that spread and sustained the Ebola epidemic. Dudas G, Carvalho LM, Bedford T, Tatem AJ, Baele G, Faria NR, Park DJ, Ladner JT, Arias A, Asogun D, Bielejec F, Caddy SL, Cotten M, D'Ambrozio J, Dellicour S, Di Caro A, Diclaro JW, Duraffour S, Elmore MJ, Fakoli LS, Faye O, Gilbert ML, Gevao SM, Gire S, Gladden-Young A, Gnirke A, Goba A, Grant DS, Haagmans BL, Hiscox JA, Jah U, Kugelman JR, Liu D, Lu J, Malboeuf CM, Mate S, Matthews DA, Matranga CB, Meredith LW, Qu J, Quick J, Pas SD, Phan MVT, Pollakis G, Reusken CB, Sanchez-Lockhart M, Schaffner SF, Schieffelin JS, Sealfon RS, Simon-Loriere E, Smits SL, Stoecker K, Thorne L, Tobin EA, Vandi MA, Watson SJ, West K, Whitmer S, Wiley MR, Winnicki SM, Wohl S, Wölfel R, Yozwiak NL, Andersen KG, Blyden SO, Bolay F, Carroll MW, Dahn B, Diallo B, Formenty P, Fraser C, Gao GF, Garry RF, Goodfellow I, Günther S, Happi CT, Holmes EC, Kargbo B, Keïta S, Kellam P, Koopmans MPG, Kuhn JH, Loman NJ, Magassouba N, Naidoo D, Nichol ST, Nyenswah T, Palacios G, Pybus OG, Sabeti PC, Sall A, Ströher U, Wurie I, Suchard MA, Lemey P, Rambaut A. Nature. 2017 Apr 20;544(7650):309-315. doi: 10.1038/nature22040. Epub 2017 Apr 12
- Miscarriage Associated with Zika Virus Infection. van der Eijk AA, van Genderen PJ, Verdijk RM, Reusken CB, Mögling R, van Kampen JJ, Widagdo W, Aron GI, GeurtsvanKessel CH, Pas SD, Raj VS, Haagmans BL, Koopmans MP. N Engl J Med. 2016 Sep 8;375(10):1002-4. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1605898. Epub 2016 Jul 27
- Identification, characterization, and natural selection of mutations driving airborne transmission of A/H5N1 virus. Linster M, van Boheemen S, de Graaf M, Schrauwen EJ, Lexmond P, Mänz B, Bestebroer TM, Baumann J, van Riel D, Rimmelzwaan GF, Osterhaus AD, Matrosovich M, Fouchier RA, Herfst S. Cell. 2014 Apr 10;157(2):329-39
- Human norovirus transmission and evolution in a changing world. de Graaf M, van Beek J, Koopmans MP. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2016 Jul;14(7):421-33. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro.2016.48. Epub 2016 May 23. Review
- Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8. Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses. Science. 2016 Oct 14;354(6309):213-217
- Intravenously injected Newcastle disease virus in non-human primates is safe to use for oncolytic virotherapy. Buijs PR, van Amerongen G, van Nieuwkoop S, Bestebroer TM, van Run PR, Kuiken T, Fouchier RA, van Eijck CH, van den Hoogen BG. Cancer Gene Ther. 2014 Nov;21(11):463-71. doi: 10.1038/cgt.2014.51. Epub 2014 Sep 26
- Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus neutralising serum antibodies in dromedary camels: a comparative serological study. Reusken CB, Haagmans BL, Müller MA, Gutierrez C, Godeke GJ, Meyer B, Muth D, Raj VS, Smits-De Vries L, Corman VM, Drexler JF, Smits SL, El Tahir YE, De Sousa R, van Beek J, Nowotny N, van Maanen K, Hidalgo-Hermoso E, Bosch BJ, Rottier P, Osterhaus A, Gortázar-Schmidt C, Drosten C, Koopmans MP. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013 Oct;13(10):859-66. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70164-6. Epub 2013 Aug 9
- Cost-effectiveness analysis of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention in the Netherlands: a mathematical modelling study. Nichols BE, Boucher CAB, van der Valk M, Rijnders BJA, van de Vijver DAMC. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 Dec;16(12):1423-1429. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30311-5. Epub 2016 Sep 22
- Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in dromedary camels: an outbreak investigation. Haagmans BL, Al Dhahiry SH, Reusken CB, Raj VS, Galiano M, Myers R, Godeke GJ, Jonges M, Farag E, Diab A, Ghobashy H, Alhajri F, Al-Thani M, Al-Marri SA, Al Romaihi HE, Al Khal A, Bermingham A, Osterhaus AD, AlHajri MM, Koopmans MP. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Feb;14(2):140-5. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70690-X. Epub 2013 Dec 17
- Pathogenesis of influenza-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. Short KR, Kroeze EJ, Fouchier RA, Kuiken T. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Jan;14(1):57-69
- Role of receptor binding specificity in influenza A virus transmission and pathogenesis. de Graaf M, Fouchier RA. EMBO J. 2014 Apr 16;33(8):823-41
- A spliced latency-associated VZV transcript maps antisense to the viral transactivator gene 61. Depledge DP, Ouwendijk WJD, Sadaoka T, Braspenning SE, Mori Y, Cohrs RJ, Verjans GMGM, Breuer J. Nat Commun. 2018 Mar 21;9(1):1167. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03569-2
PhD theses of the last five years
- 2018-06 Thesis dr. Gadissa Hundie “Genetic diversity of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Viruses in Ethiopia” Promotor dr. M.P.G. Koopmans
- 2018-06 Thesis dr. Yuri van der Does “To treat or not to treat, biomarker-guided therapy for febrile patients in the emergency department” Promotor Prof. dr. E.C.M. van Gorp
- 2018-04 Thesis Dr. Janko van Beek “Norovirus Genetic Diversity – from within patient viral evolution to global distribution” Promotor dr. M.P.G. Koopmans
- 2018-01 Thesis Dr. A. Altenburg “Development of Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara-based influenza vaccines” Promotor Prof.dr. G.F. Rimmelzwaan
- 2017-11 Thesis Dr. Seta Jahfari “Tick-borne Diseases: “Opening Pandora’s Box” Promotor dr. M.P.G.Koopmans
- 2017-05 Thesis Dr. Edwin Veldhuis Kroeze “Pathogenesis of influenza in the ferret model: a basis for improved intervention” Promotor Prof.dr. T. Kuiken
- 2016-12 Thesis Dr. Sigrid Gouma “Unravelling Factors Contributing to Mumps Outbreaks“ Promotor Prof.dr. M.P.G. Koopmans
- 2016-10 Thesis Dr. Josanne Verhagen “Influenza A virus in migratory birds: ecology, evolution and the wild-domestic interface” Promotor Prof. dr. R.A.M. Fouchier
- 2016-09 Thesis Dr. Natalie Cleton “Come Fly with Me, Integration of travel medicine and arbovirus surveillance” Promotor Prof.dr. M.P.G. Koopmans
- 2016-09 Thesis Dr. Stephanie Lim “West Nile virus in Europe: Host susceptibility, pathogenesis, and intervention studies” Promotor Prof.dr. A.D.M.E. Osterhaus
- 2016-09 Thesis Dr. Erik Schaftenaar “HIV infection and ocular disease in South Africa” Promotor Prof.dr. A.D.M.E. Osterhaus
- 2016-07 Thesis Dr. Fleur Moesker “Acute Virus Infections in Paediatric Patients Admitted to Intensive Care” Promotor Prof.dr. A.D.M.E. Osterhaus
- 2016-05 Thesis Dr. Bjorn Koel “The Molecular Basis of Influenza Virus Antigenic Change” Promotor Prof. dr. R.A.M. Fouchier
- 2016-04 Thesis Dr. Marga Goris “Leptospirosis: Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects and Diagnosis” Promotor Prof. dr. E.C.M. van Gorp
- 2016-03 Thesis Dr. Lidewij Wiersma “Understanding Emerging Zoonotic Respiratory Viruses: Animal models for human influenza and coronavirus infections” Promotor Prof. dr. G.F. Rimmelzwaan
- 2016-02 Thesis Dr. Gudrun Freidl “Influenza Virus Serology at the Human-Animal Interface - from black and white to shades of grey” Promotor Prof. dr. M.P.G. Koopmans
- 2016-01 Thesis Dr. Carolien van de Sandt “Influenza Virus-specific CD8+ T cells -Longvity, Cross-reactivity and Virus Evasion Promotor Prof. dr. G.F. Rimmelzwaan
- 2015-11 Thesis Dr. Suzan Pas “Hepatitis E in the immune-compromised patient” Promotor Prof.dr. A.D.M.E. Osterhaus
- 2015-10 Thesis Dr. Marcel Jonges “Exploring the use of influenza virus sequence diversity for the identification and characterization of transmission events” Promotor Prof. dr. M.P.G. Koopmans
- 2015-09 Thesis Dr. Pascal Buijs “Oncolytic Newcastle Disease Virus as Treatment for Pancreatic Cancer” Promotors Prof. dr. R.A.M. Fouchier and Prof. dr. C.H.J. van Eijck
- 2015-06 Thesis Dr. Marco Goeijenbier “Haemostasis and Virus Infections” Promotors Prof.dr. A.D.M.E. Osterhaus and Prof.dr. E.C.M. van Gorp
- 2015-04 Thesis Dr. Brooke Nichols “Mathematical Modeling and Cost-Effectiveness of Antiretroviral-Based HIV-1 Prevention Strategies” Promotor Prof.dr. C.A.B. Boucher
- 2014-10 Thesis Dr. A. Fibriani, “HIV and hepatitis virus co-infection among injecting drug users in West Java, Indonesia” Prof. dr. C.A.B. Boucher
- 2014-09 Thesis Dr. A. de Goede, “HIV Immunotherapy: Host Immunity and Virus Evolution” Promotor Prof. dr. A.D.M.E. Osterhaus
- 2014-09 Thesis Dr. S. van Boheemen, “Virus Discovery and Characterization using Next-Generation Sequencing” Promotores Prof. dr. R.A.M. Fouchier en Prof. dr. A.D.M.E. Osterhaus
- 2014-06 Thesis Dr. T. Nguyen, “Interactions between Paramyxoviruses and Bacteria: Implications for Pathogenesis and Intervention” Promotor Prof. dr. A.D.M.E. Osterhaus
- 2014-06 Thesis Dr. C.A.M. van de Weg, “Immune Activation in the Pathogenesis of Dengue Virus Infection” Promotores Prof. dr. A.D.M.E. Osterhaus en Prof.dr. E.C.M. van Gorp
- 2014-05 Thesis Dr. H.A. Suhkrie, “Identifying sources and transmission routes of norovirus outbreaks, Molecular epidemiological methods as the basis for targeted prevention strategies ” Promotor Prof. dr. M.P.G. Koopmans
- 2014-01 Thesis Dr. E. van der Vries, Influenza Resistance to Antiviral Drugs - Virus characterization, mechanism and clinical impact, Promotor Prof. dr. A.D.M.E. Osterhaus
- 2013-12 Thesis Dr. Werner Ouwendijk, Dynamic Interplay between Varicelloviruses and their Primate Hosts, Promotor Prof. dr. A.D.M.E. Osterhaus
- 2013-10 Thesis Dr. Eefje Schrauwen, Reassortments and Mutations Modulating Virulence and Transmission of Influenza A Virus Promotor Prof. dr. A.D.M.E. Osterhaus
- 2013-06 Thesis Dr. Monique van Velzen, Herpes Simplex Virus Type I infection Promotor Prof. dr. A.D.M.E. Osterhaus
- 2013-05 Thesis Dr. Marieke Pingen, Transmission and evolution of drug resistant HIV-1 variants Promotor Prof. dr. A.D.M.E. Osterhaus
- 2013-02 Thesis Dr. Rory de Vries, Novel insights into measles pathogenesis and immune suppression Promotor Prof. dr. A.D.M.E. Osterhaus
- 2013-01 Thesis Dr. Judith van den Brand, Experimental SARS and Influenza: Similar disease, different pathways Promotores Prof. dr. T. Kuiken en Prof. dr. A.D.M.E. Osterhaus
Non-scientific publications related to the ACE
- ‘Onschuldig’ mazelenvirus brengt je afweer om zeep https://www.nemokennislink.nl/publicaties/onschuldig-mazelenvirus-brengt-je-afweer-om-zeep/
- VIRGO: Viral infections: better understood, better contested http://assets.kennislink.nl/system/files/000/240/038/original/VIRGO___opmaak.ENG_D02.pdf
- HBO VICE news: this is how the world’s deadliest pandemics are born https://news.vice.com/en_us/article/7xdx9g/this-is-how-the-worlds-deadliest-pandemics-are-born
- VPRO, Mind of the Universe: de Veroveraar https://www.vpro.nl/programmas/the-mind-of-the-universe/kijk/afleveringen/2017/veroveraar.html
- TWIV This week in virology, interview Ft Collings abuzz with virologists http://www.microbe.tv/twiv/twiv-291-ft-collins-abuzz-with-virologists/
- Studium Generale: Verboden Terrein https://www.sg.uu.nl/videos/verboden-terrein
- Medisch Contact: ‘Westnijlvirus kan ook hier uitbreken’ https://www.medischcontact.nl/nieuws/laatste-nieuws/artikel/westnijlvirus-kan-ook-hier-uitbreken.htm
- BNR Newsradio: 'Disease x': wat wordt de volgende epidemie en hoe bestrijden we die? https://www.bnr.nl/nieuws/gezondheid/10341181/disease-x-wat-wordt-de-volgende-epidemie-en-hoe-bestrijden-we-die
- NOS: Vogelgriep en de mens: wat je moet weten https://nos.nl/artikel/2143243-vogelgriep-en-de-mens-wat-je-moet-weten.html
- Technasium: Interview met eric van gorp, opdrachtgever technasium top award 2018 https://www.technasium.nl/interview-met-eric-van-gorp-opdrachtgever-technasium-top-award-2018
- A.C. Andeweg
- P.A. Boonstra
- C.A.B. Boucher
- R.J. de Knegt
- R.A. de Man
- R.L. de Swart
- S.J. de Vlas
- H.P. Endtz
- R.A.M. Fouchier
- D.A.M.P.J. Gommers
- R.A. Gruters
- B.L. Haagmans
- T. Kuiken
- T. Mahmoudi
- H.J. Metselaar
- P. Patka
- C.B.E.M. Reusken
- J.H. Richardus
- G.F. Rimmelzwaan
- B.H.G. Rockx
- J.P.C. van den Akker
- M.M. van der Eerden
- M.E. van der Ende
- C.H.J. van Eijck
- P.J.J. van Genderen
- E.C.M. van Gorp
- A.M. Van Klaveren-Woltman
- A.M.C. van Rossum
- A. Verbon
- R.M. Verdijk
- G.M.G.M. Verjans